24시출장샵
  • 영덕러시아 마사지
  • 포항출장안마
  • 카지노사이트
  • 하남림프선 마사지
  • 영덕출장샵♦출장부르는법☼영덕분당 안마방【영덕속초 여관】ア〖영덕안마방 입에 사정〗┢영덕연산동 마사지┩영덕베트남 마사지 후기╥영덕대구 마사지 추천┨영덕코 높아지는 마사지μ영덕강남구청 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    영덕출장샵♭예약금없는출장샵✦영덕분당 안마방【영덕범일동 안마방】☆〖영덕타이 안마방〗☆영덕천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ╤영덕고관절 마사지⇁영덕안마방 강남▨영덕진접 안마방☇영덕부산역 모텔 가격

    The governments of more than 190 nations 화순태국마사지 후기 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    영덕출장샵✲예약금없는출장샵☐영덕분당 안마방【영덕카오산로드 마사지】♐〖영덕출장업소〗┈영덕이반 마사지μ영덕광양 마사지╁영덕어깨 마사지⇣영덕상봉 마사지①영덕별내 안마방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    영덕출장샵⚘24시출장샵☍영덕분당 안마방【영덕안마방 처음】▬〖영덕동대구역 근처 모텔〗✂영덕안마방 도촬♀ 영덕서울역 마사지“영덕남부터미널 안마방オ영덕오송 마사지☠영덕창동 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 85me.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    영덕출장샵♐24시출장샵╣영덕분당 안마방【영덕전주 터미널 모텔】▫〖영덕연수동 안마방〗╨영덕대구 모텔 가격┫영덕잠실 마사지♨영덕부산마사지[영덕눈붓기빼는 마사지╚영덕부산역 모텔 추천

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 태안마사지 야동 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    영덕출장샵ρ24시출장샵▨영덕분당 안마방【영덕산본 마사지 후기】♬〖영덕태국 마사지 마무리〗┍영덕콜걸출장마사지ェ영덕누들누 드┗영덕성장판 마사지ヨ영덕강서 마사지¤영덕출장 카톡

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 포항출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    영덕출장샵영덕크리스마스 안마방

  • 양구아프리카 마사지
  • 영덕천안 조건
  • 영덕출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    영덕출장샵α24시출장샵☲영덕분당 안마방【영덕목동역 마사지】✲〖영덕용암동 마사지〗⊙영덕중국 마사지 종류☢영덕마산 모텔 추천〓영덕모텔출장마사지샵◢영덕안동 안마방┳영덕방콕 에스코트

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 거창아프리카tv 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    청양호치민 마사지 추천 tongyanglife.xyz 동해라페스타 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대전출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    영덕출장샵♫출장부르는법┮영덕분당 안마방【영덕당진 안마방】✙〖영덕안마방 단속 확률〗♮영덕고딩 마사지↠영덕출장샵♟영덕산본 마사지✉영덕모텔 티켓┨영덕양평 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 수원을지로 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    영덕출장샵♟예약1영덕분당 안마방【영덕발마사지】▌〖영덕안마방 움짤〗▤영덕송우리 안마방☟영덕덕소 안마방⇛영덕안마방 시간제✡영덕태국 마사지 torrent♟영덕안마방 누드

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the undersite.xyz .

    김제안마방 bj
    대구태릉입구역 안마방 수원출장샵 영동강원 랜드 근처 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    영덕출장샵↩출장부르는법큐영덕분당 안마방【영덕단체 안마방】➨〖영덕성인마사지〗ⓔ영덕미시출장안마┯영덕미금역 안마방◐영덕건대 안마방↽영덕pornhub 안마방✤영덕안마방 김치남

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 포항출장샵 .

    영덕출장샵↤24시출장샵↙영덕분당 안마방【영덕타이 마사지 서비스】═〖영덕호치민 호텔 마사지〗0영덕안마방 못쌈╬영덕건대 마사지メ영덕근육통 마사지⇟영덕게이 마사지♖영덕강남 안마방 위치

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And lemondeacademy.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 충주마사지 기계 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    영덕출장샵↴출장부르는법➴영덕분당 안마방【영덕임산부 마사지】┏〖영덕게이 마사지〗┑영덕안마방 추천η영덕출장만족보장⇪영덕서정리 안마방❤영덕구로 안마방┹영덕안마방 스타킹

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    영덕출장샵▨예약금없는출장샵✍영덕분당 안마방【영덕안마방 용어】♫〖영덕출장오쓰피걸〗⇖영덕삼산동 마사지⊙영덕안마방 못쌈☼영덕마사지 남친★영덕대전 황궁 마사지☣영덕영천 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 영광야탑 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 구미출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 포항출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 장수보령 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 창원출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    영덕출장샵┆예약금없는출장샵♖영덕분당 안마방【영덕도쿄 안마방】☜〖영덕부천 대딸방〗➦영덕경마 시간↕영덕군산 모텔 추천▪영덕단체 안마방μ영덕울산 안마방☇영덕링검 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 창원출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 군산출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대전출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    영덕출장샵♨출장부르는법↕영덕분당 안마방【영덕경산 사우나 마사지】↥〖영덕사당 안마방〗➺영덕한물간 연예인 안마방╦영덕셀룰라이트 마사지☎영덕천안 카페⊿영덕부산 연산동 안마방✄영덕다방 모텔

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    김해사상 출장
    anma4you.xyz 거제마사지 동영상 울산출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    영덕출장샵⇃예약금없는출장샵┯영덕분당 안마방【영덕림프 마사지 금기 사항】↑〖영덕안마방 방구〗☪영덕여성전용 마사지υ영덕호치민 리버티 마사지 가격⇂영덕강서구 안마방◢영덕전립선 마사지╈영덕육덕 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.영덕출장샵영덕손가락 마사지│영덕미금 안마방╆〖영덕마사지 사진〗영덕강원 랜드 근처 마사지✖영덕호구포 마사지┓영덕실제 안마방⇋영덕화곡 마사지✪원주출장샵예약금없는출장샵영덕마사지 망가⇂영덕대딸✿(영덕마사지 ssul)영덕스즈하라 에미리 마사지┏영덕얼굴 경락 마사지♫영덕부평 안마방★영덕수원 마사지 추천チ영덕출장샵함양송파 마사지영덕서울 조건 만남コ영덕동해 안마방♂[영덕사당 안마방]영덕fc2 마사지⇩영덕일본식 안마방✖영덕안마방 전화번호 저장┦영덕마사지 샤워기☎영덕호텔 걸«영덕안마방 구분イ〈영덕안마방 사까시〉영덕출장업계위♣영덕마사지 자격증 종류⊥영덕마사지방▪영덕다낭 마사지 가격╕영덕세부 안마방▒영덕여의도 마사지┴﹝영덕제주시 안마방﹞영덕동대구역 마사지↞영덕안마방 터치✉영덕모텔 전화♟영덕삼성역 안마방┒영덕타이마사지 섹스╝영덕태국여행 마사지ζ‹영덕광진구 안마방›영덕전립선 마사지 기구▥영덕안마방 위키▪영덕사당╘영덕로미 마사지╦예약김해칭다오 마사지예약영덕마사지 간판 구분⇦영덕하노이 오아시스 호텔 마사지┻[영덕출장걸]영덕포천 마사지▷영덕호텔 마사지▶영덕강아지 마사지⇠영덕미약 마사지┨영덕출장샵영덕출장샵카지노사이트영덕동대구역 여관영덕삼계 안마방영덕김천 마사지영덕진해 마사지영덕출장샵영덕다낭 붐붐 마사지▨영덕마사지 야동❤【영덕베트남 다낭 마사지】영덕출장 오피ζ영덕코 마사지 전후↓영덕오피스 방囍영덕안마방 토렌트♂공주동서울 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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